August 19, 2016

Third generation rights

In recent years, the debate over citizenship rights has broadened to include recognition of a variety of other rights usually termed as the third generation of rights, supplementing the first generation of civil and political rights and the second generation of social rights. Those third generation rights are group rights and the environmental rights.
First, there are certain group rights i. e. the rights of such groups struggling for the rights such as women, ethnic, cultural and linguistic minorities, rights of children etc. The environmental citizenship is related to the quality of life. Like social citizenship, it is not easy to define exactly what the right in this sphere should be or to legislate for their protection. Nevertheless, it is a fact that the coordination of a pleasing, supportive and justly enjoyable environment is being denied to some people and are under threat globally.
On the other hand, there is an inherent contradiction in placing environment rights in the citizenship rights. The world economy and earth’s ecology are driving in different direction; the former being a capitalist economy whereas the latter being to protect the environment. Apart from these rights, there are other social rights of housing, rights concerning health care, food, water and social security.
The list is familiar such as air, water and noise pollution, meteorological perils such as erosion of ozone layer and global warming, and resource depletion caused by climate change, industrialization and increase in
pollution. Such rights are also expanding the very concept of citizenship beyond its traditional boundaries because many of the forces of environmental degradation cannot possibly be constrained.
This being so, it is necessary to strike a proper balance between environmental rights and citizenship  rights.


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