August 19, 2016

Potable Water

The origin of water on Earth was said to have covered about 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, more or less this is a compatible hypothesis as to how the Earth’s surface may have accumulated liquid water over the past 4.6 billion years. It was estimated that the Earth’s surface was covered with more water than that of the rocky planets of the whole solar system. Other sources have described that water-materials from the main asteroid belt colliding with the Earth may have brought water to the world to form oceans. Huge quantity of water would have been in the materials which was in the course of formation of the Earth. Water molecules would have escaped Earth’s gravity more easily when they were less massive during the formation period of the Earth. However a fair fraction of the materials should have been vaporized by the powerful impact creating a rock-vapor atmosphere around the young planet which would have condensed with a two thousand years period leaving behind hot volatile components which probably resulted into a heavy carbon-dioxide atmosphere with hydrogen and water vapors, and liquid watered oceans in existence, despite the Earth’s surface temperature of 230 ° C due to the atmospheric pressure of the heavy CO2 condition. Water is the most studied materials on Earth, but it is remarkable to find that the science behind its behaviors was poorly understood [or ignored] not only by the people in general but also by scientists working with it every day.
In the fall of 2008, it was found by the Australian Hadean Rock holding materials that pointed to the existence of plate tectonics as early  as 4 billion years ago. This was rather  a hot molten surface and an atmosphere with full of carbon-dioxide, the then Earth’s surface would be very much like as it is today. The actions of the plate tectonics had trapped the vast amount of carbon-dioxide thereby eliminating the greenhouse effects and leading to much cooler surface temperature for the formation of a solid rock [Earth] possibly even living microcosm in it.
There is a complexity of many scientists’ sources that giving their findings in different ways for the origin of the Earth. But we can assure ourselves that the formation of the Earth has been started very far away in the past, so that whatever findings that came from reliable sources are said to be as nearly true as possible. During the late heavy bombardment of massive objects probably from the outer solar system hit the Earth was possible that these objects were filled with water and could have delivered some gigantic reservoirs of water to fill the Earth, so that astronomers began to wonder that from these clues to our planet Earth’s water was lying in the asteroid belt. How has water arrived on our planet, the likely possibilities are:
[ a ] When planet Earth has been formed 4.5 billion years ago, mostly accumulated from cloud of dusts
[ b ] It has arrived soon afterward from an accumulation of water containing rocky asteroids 4.5 billion years ago.
[ c ] It has arrived somewhat later from icy comets 4.00 billion years ago.
Water security is the capacity of the population to ensure that they continue to have access to potable water. It is an increasing concern arising from population growth, drought, climate change, oscillation between El. Nino and La Nina effects, urbanization, upstream pollution, over  allocation of water licenses by Government agencies and over-utilization of ground water from artesian wells thus making water security rapidly declining in many parts of the world.
The concept of water stress and water security are relatively new. Fifty years ago. there were fewer than half the current number of people on this planet, the common perception  was  that water was  an infinite resource. Today the competition for water resources is much more intensive. This is because  there are now nearly seven billion people  on this planet, their consumption of water; thirsty meat  and vegetables  etc is rising  and  so resulted  into an increasing competition for water from industry, urbanization and biofuel crops. The total amount of availability of fresh water supply  is also decreasing because  of climate change, which has caused receding glaciers ,reduced streams and rivers flow and shrinking lakes, many aquifers have been over-pumped, with no remedy to replenish them. The world’s total supply  is yet not being used up, though very much of which has been polluted, salted and unsuitable for drinking, for industry and agriculture uses.
To measure the water crisis of a country, a popular approach has been found to rank countries according to the amount of annual water resources available per  person. According to Falkenmark  water stress indicator, a country or region is said to experience “water crisis”  when annual water supply  has dropped below 1,700 cubic meters per person  per year. At level between 1,700 and 1,000 cubic meters per person per year, the periodic or limited water shortage can be expected. When water supply has dropped below 1,000 cubic meters per person per year, the country is facing a “Water scarcity”.
The United Nations FAO has described that by 2025, 1.9 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity and  two-thirds of the world of the world population could be under stress condition. It is recognized that the water crisis is set to become  a permanent feature of British life, so that water scarcity has become  a way of life for Britain. Added by the World Bank that climate change could profoundly alter future pattern of both water availability and usage, thereby increasing level of water scarcity .as the old saying goes ‘water’ ‘water’ ‘water’ everywhere—for we have not a drop to drink “
As geologists say that the first potable water on Earth  is an irreplaceable products and up to now most of them are embedded in the inner parts of our planet EARTH, we ,the people of the  world, must find ways and means to use them efficiently so as to avoid the global water crisis in future.
The United Nations has made initiatives to raise  the issues of stress and scarcity of water to all people of the world in the following methods:
—World Water Day 2007 was dedicated to the slogan ‘Coping with water scarcity” The  increasing  significance of water scarcity and the need for increased integration  and cooperation to ensure sustainable, efficient and equitable management of scare water resources, both of international and local levels.
—World Water Day to combat desertification 2013. The slogan of 2013 World Water Day to combat desertification and droughts and water scarcity so goes the slogan “Don’t let our future dry up” calls for everyone to take action  to promote  preparedness and resilience to water scarcity, desertification and droughts.
The slogan embodies the message that we are all responsible for water and land conservation and sustainable use and that there are solutions to these serious national resources challenges.


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