August 19, 2016

Governance cannot be understood in isolation

In this age of democratisation as well as of globalisation, the agencies of state are increasingly pressured to overcome the challenges posed by the new world order or new international system or the process of globalisation. The term ‘governance’ has become popular among the people be they politicians or public officials, activists or academics, scholars or researchers.
In this regard, there arises a question as to what makes this concept of governance important and the reason why governance is considered to be the best approach to management of the complicated socio-political realities. Not being a very famous notion before late 1980s, the word governance has a connotation of the changing role of the state. To certain scholars, governance refers to withdrawal of the state role, and to other scholars, the term suggests increasing need of state action in collaboration with variegated non-state actors and social agencies.
The argument concerning the state’s role is a wide-range discussion of the basic definitions of governance endorsed by academics from world famous leading institutions. In fact, all definitions of the word governance converge on how power is exercised. (Fukuda-Parr and Richard Ponzio 2002; p-2)
According to the World Bank, there are three aspects: the form of political regime; the process by which authority is exercised; and the capacity of governments to design, formulate, and implementat the policies and discharge functions.
In the view of UNDP, governance comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal right, meet their obligations and mediate their differences.
From the perspective of OECD, the concept of governance encompasses the role of public authorities in establishment of an environment in which economic operators function as well as in determination of the distribution of benefits as well as the nature of the relation between the ruler and the ruled.
Such being the case, the notion of governance cannot be understood in isolation. We, therefore, are required to reflect upon the political development which occurred and the historical context.


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