Present-day world is severely threatened with wars and natural disasters. Deforestation is one the basic factors for creating the occurrence of a natural disaster.
Important roles of forests
People together with animals have been inhabited in the natural environment of water, land and forests in this world mutually dependent for millions of years. Among all factors, trees and forests play an important role for the survival of men. United Nations Forum on Forests describes trees and forests as beneficial:
1) World rain forest releases over 40% of oxygen
2) Dependence of 89% terrestrial biodiversity on trees and forests
3) Supply of medicinal plants to men
4) Availability of 25% latest drugs from tropical forests
5) Daily livelihood of mankind depends on forests
6) Pollination in cultivation of tropical forests.
Benefits of trees and forests
Forests are beneficial:
1) Creating a temperate climate ( Trees absorb carbon dioxide from atmosphere and a tree absorbs 0.611 kilogram to 30.56 kilograms)
2) Adjusting nature to ecological systems( reduction of wind speeds and maintenance of rainfall and soils)
3) Giving shady shelter and pleasant sight
4) Leaves, flowers, trunks, branches and roots can be used for men as medicines, eatable things, utensils, home, clothing and firewood.
5) Forests also serve as big green walls to prevent natural disasters such as storms Deforestation
As forests are very important for human societies, humanity takes shelters from forests but timberlands are destroyed by people. In order to meet human immediate needs, trees are being felled excessively. Forests, bigger than the areas of Australia are lost yearly from 2014 to 2016. The rate of losses is 20% faster than that of losses during a period of last decade. Marshland forests are likely to be lost during a period of 15 to 20 years. If this trend continues to exist, many forests in Myanmar, Cambodia, Angola, Nicaragua and Central Africa will probably disappear before 2040, AFP quoted world scientists as saying. All over the world, areas of 36 football pitches are being deforested per minute.
In Myanmar, 0.15% rate of deforestation from 1990-2010, 1.73% rate from 2010-2015, 546 000 hectares are being deforested yearly, putting Myanmar at third rank in the world after Brazil and Indonesia. The reason why the deforestation rate has increased shockingly is due to :
1) dense population, 2) urbanization,3) felling of trees for agriculture, 4) forest fires,5) extensive uses of wood and forest products, 6) Extension of pastures and unsystematic uses of land 7) unsystematic extraction of metal ,petroleum and gases.
In the way, chopping of firewood is being used as fuel, over 70% of our population live in rural areas; they used firewood and charcoal as main fuel for daily cooking purposes. Daily requirements of firewood is 16.53 cubic tons for the populace of rural and urban areas; it accounts for 76.41% of all energy consumed. In addition, Myanmar is included in the World’s biggest production of firewood, fuel and wood charcoal which account for about US$ 30.5 million; Exports of total 330000 charcoal tons to China, according to UN Contrade and database.
With a population of 53.9 million in 2015 with a possible increase to 60.2 million in 2030, the requirements of firewood and charcoal will also increase. The use of firewood and charcoal will definitely increase in in densely populated areas of Ayeyawaddy, Mandalay, Bago, and Sagaing Regions, according to the report of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation ( REDD).
In consequence of deforestation
1.The consequences cause high temperature, floods, landslides, ecological damages in biodiversity, abnormal weather, spread of diseases, insects and other microbes to men.
2.Sustainable management of forests must be sought by collecting funds from different sources; maintenance and rehabilitation of trees in the damaged forests in the developing countries must be encouraged by giving enough incentives.
In the same way, New York Declaration on Forests dated 23 September, 2014 describes to reduce 2 degree centigrade worldwide, reduce deforestation by 50% in 2020 and no more deforestation in 2030.
3.In the worldwide programs, the objectives of rehabilitation and maintenance of forests should be included .
4. oil-palms, horse grams, paper pulps and meat productions which are related to agriculture; deforestation is due to the production of above-mentioned ones. Private businessmen should be helped to reduce deforestation and wipe it out completely.
5.In 2020 ,to reduce deforestation due to other economic businesses.
6. As a basic need for agriculture and charcoal requirement creates deforestation and other ways and means must be sought to reduce deforestation and poverty.
In Myanmar, timber productions stopped in Bago Yoma during 2016-17 for ten years. Rehabilitation plans of forests in the Regions and States during 2017-8 to 2027-8 financial years must be implemented. Programs of deforestation and lower standards of forests to carbon reduction are being carried out at a country level.
6) The up-to-date forest laws dated 20 September, 2018 should be prescribed by Pyidaundsu Hluttaw as law no.29
7) REED roadmap was drawn in 2013 and started to implement it in 2015.
Carbon Market in the World
Prior preparations are being carried out by Myanmar to enter World Carbon Market. The Market means to change the abnormal climate and to reduce deforestation in the developing countries with scant forests should be helped by the United Nations and World Bank to establish the Green Climate Funds. From these organizations, aids will be given to the countries which maintain trees and forests.
Brazil plays an important role in the Carbon Market. For Myanmar, for its deforestation and storage of Carbon from the forests, stands at 34th position. By 2030, Myanmar is expected to store up to 90km million.(A tree could absorb an average km of 15 per year) Our country including media focuses on importance and a high price of a tree and maintenance of forests; it needs to be educated from all sides and in different ways.
In conclusion, in a period during which many hectares of forests are being destroyed per second, educative talks on reforestation are strongly urged starting from the moment now.
Translated by Arakan Sein