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July 21, 2019

Competency Based Training and Assessment

Competency is the ability to perform duties and tasks within an occupation to the standard of performance expected in the workplace. Occupational Competency Standards, usually drawn up with the involvement of employer / industry representatives, sets standards of expected levels of performance within an occupation.
Occupational Competency Standards have several components. The first is a descriptor of the Occupation concerned. This is followed by ‘Units of Competencies’which relate to the ‘duties’ to be performed in the occupation. The ‘Units’ are divided into ‘Elements’ or ‘tasks’to be performed and the ‘Performance Criteria’for competent performance required of each of the ‘tasks’. Then there is the ‘Range Statement’ which describes the context in which performance is undertaken. Next, the ‘Evidence Guide’ indicates what to look for in deciding whether the performer is competent or not yet competent.  The ‘Evidence Guide’includes statements of ‘Underpinning Skills and Knowledge’ required for competent performance. The structure of the Standard may sound rather complicated. However the Standards incorporate all that is required to ensure competent performance and assessment of that performance.
Competency Standards are usually structured to correspond to levels of performance.  Competency Standards for skilled workers are usually drawn up at four levels. Level 1 relates to a less-skilled worker who may be required to perform under supervision, in jobs requiring routine tasks that involve a narrow range of skills of the occupation. Level 2 relates to skilled worker who is able to perform a wide range of tasks in the occupation with minimum supervision, while Level 3 relates to high skilled worker who may be required to perform independently, in jobs requiring a wide range of the occupational skills including problem solving. Level 4 relates to workers who attain supervisor/technician status from the ranks of the skilled workers.
Competency Based Training is training imparted in accordance with curricula and teaching/learning materials developed based on the Competency Standards. It may be undertaken through a system of modular courses of suitable duration for each level. Dividing the training programs into levels according to the competency attainments mentioned above, enables trainees to acquire employable skills step by step with intervening periods of wage employment after each level. Also,Competency Based Training and Certification contributes to the process of life long learning.
Competency Based Assessment is in accordance with Competency Standards laid down for the various levels of  competency attainment. Competency based assessment and certification ensures that the certificate holder is competent at the level certified. Usually a period of experience is required after the course of training at each level for taking the assessment at the level trained. The Competency Standards could also be used for assessment and certification of skilled workers who have acquired skills in an occupation through experience on-the-job,but have no formal recognition of their skills.
The Employment and Skills Development Law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw in 2013, advocates Competency Based Training and Assessment for the development and certification ofskills of the workforce.

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