- Tommy Pauk
A term ‘brain drain ‘is defined as ‘a significant emigration of educated or talented individuals. They expect better pay, benefits or upward mobility in foreign countries. If it is to say simply, a brain drain is the movement of highly skilled and qualified people to a country where they can work in better condition and earn more money. In other words, when we talk about a brain drain, we are referring to the movement of a large number of scientists or academics, away from their own country to other countries where the salaries and conditions are better for them. Besides, they want to develop their skills, experiences and new knowledge. It is human nature that if a person acquires high skill and possesses high caliber, he or she might expect the payment and benefits which best deserved them duly.
If a certain country encounters brain drain issue, it will affect the country’s socio-economic development. Basically this movement is caused by the acts or responses of the unwise governments who neglect the capacity of intellectuals and intelligentsias. In some countries, when the selfish and power crazy groups of people are in power and authority, they never ever think about the nurturing of human resources for developing of the nation. The subservient sycophants who toady to the regimes get higher salaries and better conditions than the decent personnel in the public services. Sometimes, those sycophants are neither academics nor experienced personnel in the respective government departments, but they are more authoritative than the other officials who are well-educated and skilful in the same departments. For these frustrating situations, the academics and skilful personnel quit from their positions on their own accord in order to seek the job with higher salaries and benefits in some prosperous foreign country. For example, computer specialists, medical doctors and skilled technicians seek decent jobs abroad. They seek not only job opportunity but also citizenship of the rich countries especially in the US and Europe countries. The wealthy parents send their children to advanced countries to pursue academic study. E.g in the USA, UK and JAPAN etc. The wealthy parents expect that their offspring could easily get the job when they obtain degrees or diplomas from those popular or high-rank colleges and universities abroad. In this way, the concerned nation loses the educated people of new generation which are human resources.
Most of the academics seek the countries in which they could legally get employment permit and stay permit especially in the First World; the rich industrial countries in the world. However, it is not easy for them to enter or get job in these countries because each country has a statute of employment which stipulates or favors their own citizens to get employment. Furthermore, the academics from developing countries or from countries which have substandard education level must take advance courses at colleges and universities in the developed countries so that they will be qualified in their major subjects. Another way to getting job is that they need to apply for getting work permit for foreign entrants to the government concerned.
Brain- gain denotes the alien academics or intelligentsia or intellectuals or cognoscenti are being employed with fringe benefits and attractive payment in the developing countries. In other words, brain gain is defined as ‘an increase in the number of highly trained, foreign-born professionals entering a country to live and work where greater opportunities are offered. Normally, the developing countries lack technical know-how, expertise and experts so they hire or employ foreign experts to aid the all round development of the concerned employer- country. Besides, if a certain country cannot upgrade its education level to the high standard, the country needs to have the assistance of foreign experts for the progress of the country. In that case, local people are trained by the alien academics or intelligentsia or intellectuals or cognoscenti for widening knowledge and skill in order to build capacity in their respective fields or subjects.
Aforementioned movements of brain gain and brain drain occur significantly across the world due to economic gap between developing countries and developed countries. Unquestionably, the developed countries can create more job opportunities than the developing countries so the educated people from the developing countries seek and grab the jobs in the developed countries. Nevertheless, brain drain can cause the negative impact in a concerned nation. All the leaders of developing nations should be able to tackle the brain drain issue efficiently. Unless they can handle it, their nation will lose the human resources which are of their own citizens. As a result, the individuals gain benefits, achievement and high creature-comforts, but their countries encounter weak economy and inefficient capacity in nation building. The more brain drain occurs, the less development arises in a certain nation indeed!