August 19, 2016

Aspirations of Men In The Street

In most countries of the world the majority of citizens are ordinary working people. They are workers (both blue and white collars) in agricultural, production, industries, transport, tourism and many other public and private service sectors. Governments in all countries have mandate to raise the living standards of those ordinary people. During the cold war times, nations are classified as west bloc and east block, the former represented countries with democratic political system and capitalist economy and the latter practiced socialist/communist system and centralized economy. Then there was another concept created. The term third world arose during the cold war to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO, or the communist bloc. The United States, Western European nations and their allies represented the first world, while the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and their allies represented the second world.  Most of the third world countries were low to middle income developing countries. In classifying the countries, economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is income per capita; countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialization; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed countries. More recently another measure, the Human Development Index (HDI), which combines an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. According to the United Nations Statistics Division, there is no established convention for the designation of “developed” and “developing” countries or areas in the United Nations system. And it notes that the designations “developed” and “developing” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
Least developed country (LDC)
A LDC is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. The concept of LDCs originated in the late 1960s and the first group of LDCs was listed by the UN in its resolution 2768 (XXVI) of 18 November 1971.  A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:
■ Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)
■ Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and
■ Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)
LDC criteria are reviewed every three years by the Committee for Development Policy (CDP) of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Countries may “graduate” out of the LDC classification when indicators exceed these criteria. The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) coordinates UN support and provides advocacy services for Least Developed Countries. The classification (as of 24 January 2014) applies to 48 countries. Since the LDC category was initiated, only four countries have graduated to developing country status. The first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in 1994. The second country was Cape Verde, in 2007. Maldives graduated to developing country status on 1 January 2011, while Samoa graduated in 2014. It is anticipated that Equatorial Guinea and Vanuatu will be the next countries to be promoted from LDC status. At the UN’s fourth conference on LDCs held in May 2011, delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. There are three countries which presently meet the criterion for LDC status, but have declined to be included in the index, questioning the validity or accuracy of the CDP’s data: Ghana, Papua New Guinea, and Zimbabwe. Out of 48 LDC countries there are 9 in Asia and of which 3 are within ASEAN countries including Myanmar. 9 LDC Asian countries are: (1) Afghanistan (2) Bangladesh (3) Bhutan (4) Cambodia (5) East Timor (6) Laos (7) Myanmar (8) Nepal (9) Yemen.
Characteristics of LDC
Least developed countries suffer conditions of extreme poverty, ongoing and widespread conflict (including civil war or ethnic clashes), extensive political corruption, and lack political and social stability. The form of government in such countries is often authoritarian in nature, and may comprise a dictatorship, warlordism, or a kleptocracy. AIDS is a major issue in many of these countries. The majority of LDCs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over population and lack of proper distribution of wealth and resources is also a common matter within the LDC countries. These characteristics generally do not apply to LDCs located in Oceania. Kiribati, Samoa, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu are politically stable democracies, and lack any form of civil or ethnic strife. Nor are they strongly affected by AIDS. Although they have small economies, often dependent on monocultures, the population generally does not suffer from extreme poverty, thanks to an enduring subsistence sector in the economy. The Solomon Islands is the only Oceanian LDC currently affected by political instability and ethnic tension. In 2006, the United Nations recommended that Samoa be graduated from LDC status. The Samoan government disagreed, however in 2007 the UN Economic and Social Council endorsed the recommendation, setting Samoa’s graduation date for 31 December 2010. Following the tsunami that hit Samoa in 2009, Samoa’s graduation was deferred until January 2014.
“Middle class” is widely recognized now to indicate and reflect the progress of economy   and social sector in the developing countries such as India, Brazil, Malaysia etc. Middle class is a ​social ​group that consists of ​well-educated ​people, such as ​technicians, ​small business owners, public and private sector employees and ​teachers, who have good ​jobs and are neither very ​rich ​nor very ​poor. The ​“upper ​middle ​class” ​tend to go into ​business or the ​professions, ​ for ​example, ​lawyers, ​doctors, IT experts, managers or ​accountants. Both middle and upper middle classes belong to the men-in-the-street or ordinary people. We all, in Myanmar, must aspire and work diligently to get out of LDC status and graduate to become fully fledged Developing Country. We in Myanmar have all potentials to become a Developing Country in few years time because we have strong prospect in human resources, economy, agriculture, export oriented diverse industries, improving infrastructure, tourism and other services. We ordinary people, men in the street are patriotic, are peace loving, hardworking and we are the majority of the population in the country. Regardless of whatever political parties or Government elected in the country, we people and the families have been having the same common aspirations for decades. One of the most important and essential factors to be graduated from LDC and become a Developing Country is rule of law in the country. Every citizen must be under the law of the land and it will become smooth to realize our common aspirations.
Our aspirations
We, the ordinary people and tax payers, want peace in the country, job & employment opportunities for all, protection of natural resources & forests, international standard education and health services for us and for our children, gender equality, eradication of drug abuses, crime, bribery and corruption; sustainable and reliable utility services (water, electricity, gas, communication, internet etc.), good infrastructure nationwide, safe & efficient public transports; stability of prices of essential daily food items & consumer goods, proper and affordable housing for families all over the country and efficient Government services.


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